Towards a quantum computer: FMN Laboratory team produced qubit transmons with the coherence time of more than 50 microseconds
The FMN Laboratory team created and experimentally demonstrated 2D transmon qubits. This is the key basis of multi-qubit quantum processors of the entire world’ IT giants. Superconducting qubits have undeniable advantages, since they can be fabricated using the “standard” methods of modern nanoelectronics. It means a simple and fast scalability of superconducting quantum circuits and the mass production of quantum processors. FMN Laboratory team developed a technological base that allows competing with world scientific laboratories.
Superconducting qubits “do not tolerate” any, even atomic pollution of interfaces and surfaces, therefore they require the use of sophisticated manufacturing techniques. They work stably only in a controlled environment at temperatures below those of liquid nitrogen – in the immediate vicinity of absolute zero according to Kelvin. Until 2016, the lag in the main parameters of domestic superconducting quantum computers and simulators was more than 10 years.
Today in Russia for the first time, a complex of competitive serial technologies and technical solutions in the field of quantum computing based on superconducting qubits has been created. FMN Laboratory developed a Russian technology for the manufacture of crystals of quantum processors with nanometer sizes of qubit elements and the basic module of a superconducting quantum computer.
The module is based on a commercial superconducting cryostat and special systems for high frequency microwave filtering, multi-level shielding, the necessary special electronics control units and software. The created complex has no analogues in Russia and corresponds to the best world standards. The technology makes it possible to create superconducting qubits (“transistors” of quantum processors) and quantum multi-qubit superconducting integrated circuits using the latest nanoelectronic methods.
Ilya Rodionov, FMN Laboratory Director, shared his thoughts and plans for the upcoming work:
“We consider the obtained result to be intermediate; and we understand what to do in the next stage. We plan to move towards a 100-qubit computer with the qubit lifetime of more than 100 microseconds. Our ultimate goal is to create a universal quantum computer, which will allow us to solve practical problems that are useful for our country. We quite clearly understand and imagine what needs to be improved both in technology, experiment, measurements, and in algorithms in order to come to a practically useful quantum simulator”.
Russia confidently takes its position in a closed technology club and begins to participate in the global digital quantum race. The limitless possibilities of quantum computers – in encrypting and decrypting information, modeling the most complicated processes of quantum chemistry and new materials, calculating processes associated with new manufacturing technologies, creating and researching new drugs, calculating complex thermophysical processes and much more – will be possible for our country.
The work was carried out within the framework of the project of the Foundation for Advanced Research (FPI) in close cooperation between FSUE “VNIIA”, BMSTU, Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, MISiS, MIPT, RQC, NSTU.
Thanks to the cooperation of the leading Russian scientific teams, one-qubit and two-qubit logic gates with an accuracy of 80 to 99% have already been implemented, which will allow proceeding with the creation of Russian multi-qubit quantum processors in the near future.